Mother Sauces and Small Sauces
  Re: (...)
The discussion of homemade sauces vs. commercial creamed soups got me to thinking about how many absolutely wonderful flavored sauces we can use for substituting.

If anyone is interested, I will post the Mother sauces each day with their corresponding small sauces. Let me do Bechamel today and if anyone is interested, I will continue with Veloute, Espagnole (brown), Tomato and Hollandaise sauces.

So, here's what I know about Bechamel -

The Leading Sauces:

(1) – Liquid + (2) – Thickening Agent = (3) – Leading Sauce

Milk + white roux = Bechamel Sauce
White stock (veal, chicken, fish) + white or blond roux = Veloute (veal veloute, chicken veloute, fish veloute)
Brown stock + brown roux = Brown sauce or Espagnole
Tomato plus stock + (optional roux) = Tomato sauce (note: roux is not used in all tomato sauces, tomato puree is naturally thick)
Butter + egg yolks = Hollandaise sauce

Hope this is self-explanatory – milk (the liquid) + white roux (the thickening agent) = Bechamel (Leading sauce)

Bechamel & It’s Small Sauces:

Classic Bechamel Sauce: (makes 1 gallon)
8 oz. clarified butter
8 oz. bread flour
1 gal milk
1 whole onion
1 whole clove
1 Bay leaf
To taste – salt
To taste – nutmeg
To taste – white pepper

(1. Just said to review how to make a roux)
2. Heat the butter in a heavy sauce pot over low heat.
Add the flour and make a white roux. Cool the roux
3. In another saucepan, scald the milk. Gradually add it
to the roux, beating constantly
4. Bring the sauce to a boil, stirring constantly. Reduce
heat to a simmer.
5. Stick the bay leaf to the onion with the clove and add
to the sauce. Simmer at least 15 minutes, or if possible,
for 30 minutes or more. Stir occasionally while cook-
6. Adjust the consistency with more hot milk, if necessary.
7. Season very lightly with salt, nutmeg, and white pepper.
Spice flavors should not dominate.
8. Strain the sauce through a china cap lined with cheese-
cloth. Cover or spread melted butter on surface to pre-
vent skin formation. Keep hot in a bain marie, or cool
in cold-water bath for later use.

Everyday Bechamel Sauce (Medium): (Makes 2 cups)
4 T. butter
4 T. flour
2 cups milk
1/2 tsp. salt
Dash white pepper

Melt the butter in the top of a double-boiler (or a SST bowl set over a pot of simmering water) over low heat. Add the flour and blend together for 2 minutes. (Note: you can cook white sauce over direct heat if you use a heavy pan and stir constantly.)

Add the milk, stirring constantly. When making large quantities of white sauce, you’ll save time if you heat half the milk. Add cold milk first; blend; stir in hot milk.

Cook until thick and smooth, stirring constantly. Add the salt, white pepper. Cover and cook 5 to 8 minutes.

For thick white sauce: Use 3 T. fat/butter, 4 T. flour and 1 cup milk.

Small Sauces from Bechamel(white) Sauce:

For each of the following sauces, add the ingredients indicated to 1 qt (1 L) Bechamel Sauce. Season to taste.

Cream Sauce:
4 to 8 oz. heavy cream, heated or tempered.

Mornay Sauce:
4 02 (125 g) grated Gruyere cheese and 2 oz (60 g) parmesan, stirred in until just melted. Finish, off heat, with 2 oz (60 g) raw butter. Thin out with a little hot milk, if necessary, or use a stock or broth appropriate for the dish being prepared.

Mornay Sauce for Glazing or Gratineeing:
Finish Mornay Sauce with liaison of 2 egg yolks and 2 oz (60 ml.) heavy cream.

Cheddar Cheese Sauce:
8oz (250 g) cheddar cheese, 1/2 tsp (2 mL) dry mustard, 2 tsp (10 mL) Worcestershire sauce.

Mustard Sauce:
4oz (125 g) prepared mustard.

Soubise Sauce:
1 lb (500 g) onions, finely diced, cooked slowly in 2 oz (60 g) butter without browning. Simmer with sauce 15 minutes, and force through a fine sieve.

Tomatoed Soubise Sauce:
Add 1 pt (500 ml.) thick tomato puree to 1 qt (l L) Soubise Sauce.

Nantua Sauce:
6 oz (175 g) Shrimp Butter (p. 135),4 oz (125 ml.) heavy cream.

(Note: Classic Nantua Sauce is made with crayfish, not readily available in all parts of the United States.)

Tomorrow, I’ll add Veloute and its small sauces.
Retired and having fun writing cookbooks, tasting wine and sharing recipes with all my friends.
  Re: Mother Sauces and Small Sauces by cjs (The discussion of ho...)
Ahhhhh.... The Mother sauces...

C@H did a wonderful series about them, but I would have to comb the indexes to find them all.

Thank you Jean!

When life gives you lemons, make lemonade. Then find someone whose life has given them vodka.
  Re: Re: Mother Sauces and Small Sauces by BarbaraS (Ahhhhh.... The Moth...)
Thank you Jean! This could only get better with a video

Everything tastes better Alfresco!
  Re: Mother Sauces and Small Sauces by cjs (The discussion of ho...)
Thank you Jean! I think I brought the "Sauce" cookbook, but it's in the trailer. This is going to be a great reference.

I've gotta laugh - I've made some of these sauces and never knew what they were called, let along that they had a name!
You only live once . . . but if you do it right once should be enough!
  Re: Re: Mother Sauces and Small Sauces by Harborwitch (Thank you Jean! I t...)
I'm with you Sharon! For example, I make the Veloute and Espagnole often, but never remember that it has a name. I should really pull out the Petereson Sauces book again.

Thanks, Jean. Your shortened version is so much easier to copy and save in one place. So I say, POST AWAY!
Keep your mind wide open.
  Re: Re: Mother Sauces and Small Sauces by Gourmet_Mom (I'm with you Sharon!...)
If blueberry muffins have blueberries in them, what do vegan muffins have?
  Re: Re: Mother Sauces and Small Sauces by labradors (Try [url=http://free...)
Thanks Labs, great resource.
  Re: Re: Mother Sauces and Small Sauces by Cubangirl (Thanks Labs, great r...)
Jean, thanks for posting your recipe! I'm looking forward to the next installment.
Labs, what an interesting site! I'm looking forward to some viewing later today.
  Re: Re: Mother Sauces and Small Sauces by karyn (Jean, thanks for pos...)
Ohhh- thank you Jean! I too would love to see the other sauces and variations!
Mom to three wonderful 7th graders!
The time is flying by.
  Re: Re: Mother Sauces and Small Sauces by esgunn (Ohhh- thank you Jean...)
Wow, great information! Thank you, Jean. I would love to see more.

"Drink your tea slowly and reverently..."

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